Annex A- Group project proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)



Matthew Liang
Kevin Tan
Jonah Choke

Class: S2-01

Group Reference: A
A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[Selected] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

B.    Type & Category
Type of research: 3  Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
(Write down one number from 1 to 6)

(Write down one number from 7 to 20)
Sub-category –  G Mechanics
(Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

     The project is relevant to the world because if our research is a success, we could help the car industries because our project is related to torque and distance so the car industries could use our findings to improve their car’s performance as smaller wheels would aid in the acceleration of cars and improve performance. We can also improve the manual transmissions in cars such that when it switches to the next gear, the torque multiplied is useful, whereby it is not too great and not too little when the car is in different scenarios.
C.    Write down your research title:
To investigate the torque produced by different motors
D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 

The aim is the relationship between force and distance and which type of motor has more torque.
(b) Independent variable
-Distance of the ruler piece to the centre of the motor shaft, d/cm

-Type of motor
(c) Dependent variable
-The magnitude of the force
(d) Controlled variables
-Amount of voltage used for each motor
-The wedge on the scale must be at the same position throughout
-The wooden wedge and ruler pieces MUST be tared by the kitchen scale every time for each motor as its reading will affect the magnitude of the force.
-Kitchen scale must be set at 0 all the time.
-All motors need to stall before disconnecting power.
-Highest reading must be taken for each motor.
   (e) Hypotheses
-The longer the distance from the ruler piece to the centre of the motor shaft, less force needed to stall motor and vice versa.
- Motors with higher gear ratio will have higher torque.
E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
(a) Equipment list:

- Piece of wooden plank, with a minimum area of 900 cm^2
- 2 1m wooden ruler
- 3 different type of micro DC Gearmotor
- 4 AA size Battery Holder
- 4 1.5V AA battery
-Motor Hubs
-Mounting bracket(with its specific screws in its packaging)  
-Screws suited for motor hubs
-Pen or marker
-Knife-blade Switch
-Duct tape
-Double sided tape

 Items (to be borrowed from the laboratory):
 - Kitchen Scale
 -Glue gun
 -Alligator clips

(b) Diagrams
Screen Shot 2017-02-23 at 11.14.44 AM.png

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Note: wooden structure is the structure made from the ruler pieces(explained later in the procedure)

1. First, wear safety goggles. Then, take the piece of wooden plank and cut out a 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm plank using the electric saw. Keep the leftover wood for the wooden wedge and platform.
2. Then, saw the wooden ruler into three pieces and drill the holes on the ruler pieces as shown in the diagram below, keep the remaining piece of the ruler:
Screen Shot 2017-02-15 at 8.46.16 AM.png

Each hole should be 3.0 mm in diameter
Note: We are comparing the distance between the centre of the motor shaft to the wooden wedge in multiples of 2, starting from 12.0 cm, 14.0 cm, 16.0 cm, 18.0 cm, 20.0 cm, and finally 24.0 cm. We have 1.0 cm at the end is because we can position the motor shaft nicely. Otherwise, the motor shaft would be positioned away from the ruler piece. Also, we left some space at the other end, because if it is exactly 12.0 cm, the ruler piece may slide off from the wedge so it may be an unfair test. To obtain the first and last holes on the ruler pieces, put the motor hub on the ruler piece, then use a pen or marker and then mark the location of the hole.

3. For the 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm plank, put the mounting bracket on top of the plank. Then, use a marker or pen to mark the holes of the mounting bracket, where the screws are supposed to go in. Then, drill two holes into the points marked by the marker. The holes should be big enough for the screws to go in.

Screen Shot 2017-01-14 at 2.00.43 PM.png

4. Use the remaining plank and cut two corners of the plank, which would form two triangles. It should be 0.5 x 3.0 cm x 1.8 cm each. Then, glue them using a glue gun such that the total dimensions become 0.5  x 3.5 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.0 cm.

5. Then, cut out  25.0 cm, 11.0 cm, 9.0 cm, 7.5 cm, 6.5 cm and 5.0 cm pieces from the ruler, before arranging them from longest to smallest, stacking on top of each other. Put double sided tape and glue between each layer. This would be our wooden structure. Then, place the wooden structure onto the remaining part of the huge piece of wooden plank and attach it with double sided tape and glue.

Screen Shot 2017-01-30 at 4.48.58 PM.png

6. Then, stick the 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm plank onto the top of the structure made in step 5 and attach it with glue and double sided tape. Afterwards, wrap the structure with duct tape, but make sure it does not cover the top face of the 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm plank. We wrap it with duct tape because the structure may be a bit unstable and can shake slightly, which will affect our readings.

7. Afterwards, put the motor on the 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm plank. Then put the mounting bracket on top of the motor and fasten it by screwing the screws through the holes. The purpose of the mounting bracket is to hold the motor in place.

8.Attach the shortest ruler piece onto the motor shaft. Do it by attaching the motor hub onto the shaft. Then use screws to screw into the first and last holes of the ruler piece to attach the motor hub with the ruler piece.

9.Place the weighing scale onto the wood and switch it on. Next, stick the wooden wedge onto the middle of the weighing scale with a blue-tack. This would serve as the middle point where the red line on the ruler piece must land onto.

10. With the motor not powered, move the ruler piece such that it rests on the wooden wedge. Do not apply force on top of the ruler piece. Tare the reading of the wooden wedge and ruler piece. This is because if we do not tare it, their mass will affect the readings of the force. We tare the ruler piece to exclude its mass as its mass would affect the force, which in turn affect the moment.

11. Then, connect the alligator clips to the switch, motor and batteries in the battery holder, before powering the motor by closing the switch. The motor should be moving the ruler piece towards the scale. Get a friend to film the readings.

12. Let the motor exert force until the readings reach its highest(readings should start to drop once it does so). Once it reaches this stage, open the switch.

13. Watch the readings from the video and find out the highest possible reading attained.This is to ensure accuracy as we may miss out. Convert the reading shown on the kitchen scale to kilograms(reading is shown in grams), before multiplying it with the gravitational acceleration of 9.8 m/s2 to get the force exerted on the scale to stall the motor. To find the torque of the motor, simply multiply the force with the distance of the ruler piece from the centre of the motor shaft to the wooden wedge in metres(Convert from centimetres to metres because our measurements are in centimetres).

14.Repeat step 13 again 2 more times. Afterwards, take the average of the three readings.

15. Repeat 8-13 with the two longer ruler pieces, using the different lengths from the centre of the motor shaft to the wooden wedge (14.0 cm, 16.0 cm, 18.0 cm, 20.0 cm, 24.0 cm) to test.

16. Repeat steps 7-15 with the two other motors.(Skip steps 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 because you have already done it and the plank, ruler pieces, wooden wedge and wooden structure can be reused.)

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
We are dealing with electricity so someone may get an electric shock or in severe cases, they may get electrocuted.
Be aware of surroundings, do not close the switch when building the setup. Make sure hands are dry before dealing with wires and power source. When power is switched on, do not touch the bare ends of the wire.         
Someone may carelessly put his hands near the ruler piece while the motor spins it, so the ruler piece may hit the person’s hand and injure him.
Do not put hand close to the motor when it is turned on.
If you need to be close for measurement, make sure body parts do not face the edges of the wooden ruler piece.
We will be sawing and drilling the wooden ruler and may injure ourselves and other people if we are not careful.
Be alert and also look around and assess if there is danger, before sawing or drilling. Be focused, do not swing the saw or drill around for fun, especially when people is near you. Wear safety goggles.
We may accidentally short the battery by accident by accidentally connecting the wires of the battery together. This would boil the chemicals in the battery and set the battery holder on fire.
Be alert, when not using the battery holder, do not load it with batteries. If using the battery holder, make sure wires are not connected directly together, before closing the switch.
Unlikely and not severe harm

Likely but not severe OR Unlikely but severe

Likely and Severe harm
Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

1.    Tabulate the data and calculate the amount of force and pair them together with the fixed distances used accordingly for each motor.

2. Plot a graph that shows how distance and force changes according and the results for different type of motors.        

3.    From the graph, we can tell which motor has the highest torque and how force changes with distance due to fixed torque of the motor.

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Screen Shot 2017-03-03 at 9.08.10 PM.png
Plot a Graph of F against d and determine gradient of the graph:

Screen Shot 2017-03-03 at 9.17.07 PM.png

We see that as the distance increases, the force exerted on the scale decreases, thus it shows that the gradients are going down.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.
(a) Books

Assessment, O. of T. (1995). Advanced automotive technology: Visions of a super-efficient family car (electric vehicle information series)

Cutnell, J.D., Johnson, K.W. and Fisher, K.D. (2009) Physics. 8th edn. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd).

Heisler, H. (1995). Advanced engine technology (3rd ed.). London: A Butterworth-Heinemann Title.

Heisler, H. (1999). Vehicle and Engine Technology (2nd ed.)

Jenkins, R. (1902) Motor Cars and the Application of Mechanical Power to Road Vehicles. T.F. Unwin.

Townsend, J. (2011) Cars and Motorbikes. London, United Kingdom: Raintree.

(b) Journals
Ravinder, S. and Banothu, R. (2015) ‘Design and analysis of Gear Shaft’, SSRG International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (SSRG-IJME), 2(9), p. 52.

(c) Websites

AutoInsider. (2014, September 13). 7 advantages and disadvantages of bigger wheels. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

Daware, K. (2014). Kiran Daware. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

de Paula, M. (2011) Design disasters: Three ways cars are getting worse. Available at: (Accessed: 13 January 2017)

How A Car Works (2017) Torque and BHP explained. Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2017).

How does wheel size affect performance? Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

Pietschmannn, H. (2002). Why you need more moving force (lower gears - more torque) with larger wheels and tires. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

Platform drive calculations. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

QUIROGA, T. (2010) Effects of Upsized wheels and tires tested - tech Dept. Available at: (Accessed: 21 January 2017).

Torque Cars (2000) A look at high performance wheels. Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2017).

Using DC motors in fighting robots. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from

Weinberger, H. and CNN, S. to (2012) Changing gears: Is knowing how to drive stick in America still essential? Available at: (Accessed: 16 January 2017).

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